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“Jews took part in the settling and pioneering            terms of Solomon Star and Moses Morris account for
      of the state of Montana from the earliest times,           ‡‹‰Š–‡‡ ›‡ƒ”• ȋƒ•  ƒ•–‡” ‘ˆ –Š‡‹”  ‘†‰‡Ȍǡ „—– –™‘
      attracted by stories of wealth and adventure. The          other Jewish men were also Worshipful Masters for
      early Montana Jews shared certain characteristics.         No. 9 during the territorial period. Isaac Haas was
      Many were former Confederates who came to                  elected Worshipful Master in December 1871 and
      Montana immediately after the Civil War to establish
      businesses. Helena’s placer boom brought thousands          •”‡ƒŽ  ƒŽŠ‹‰‡” ‹  ‡…‡„‡” ͙͚͠͠ǤdzΓǤ
      stampeding for gold. Of this number, 160 Jewish            Š‡  ”ƒ†  ‘†‰‡ ‘ˆ  ‘–ƒƒ Šƒ• Šƒ† ˆ‘—”  ‡™‹•Š  ”ƒ†
      ‡ …ƒ‡ –‘  ƒ•–  Šƒ…‡  —Ž…Š „‡–™‡‡ ͙͠͞͝ ƒ†             ƒ•–‡”•ǣ  ‘Ž  –ƒ” •‡”˜‡† ƒ• –Š‡ •‡…‘†  ”ƒ†  ”‡ƒ•—”‡”
      ͙͙͟͠Ǥ  ‡ˆ‘”‡ –Š‡ ‡ơ‘”–• –‘ ‘”‰ƒ‹œ‡ ‹  ‡Ž‡ƒ ƒ†         Žƒ–‡” ƒ• ƒ† –Š‡ •‡…‘†  ”ƒ†  ‡…”‡–ƒ”› ƒ† –Š‡ •‡˜‡–Š
       —––‡ǡ ™Š‡”‡ –Š‡ Ƥ”•– •–”‘‰  ‡™‹•Š …‘—‹–‹‡•            ”ƒ†  ƒ•–‡” ‹ ͙͛͟͠Ǥ  ‘•‡•  ‘””‹•  •‡”˜‡† ƒ•  ”ƒ†
      emerged, religion played a lesser role in the lives of     ƒ•–‡” ‹ ͙͚͠͡Ǥ  Ǥ  ‘Ž  ‡’‡” •‡”˜‡† ƒ•  ”ƒ†  ƒ•–‡” ‹
      Montana Jews than good citizenship in the struggling      ͙͘͜͡Ǥ  ‡”›  —„‹  ”ƒ Š‡Ž† –Š‡ ‘ƥ…‡ ‘ˆ  ”‡ƒ–  ƒ•–‡”
      communities.                                              in 1905
       Furthermore, Jews who chose to scatter further
      away from these two communities to a remoter area
      in Montana grew isolated from their co-religionists,
      lost much of their distinctiveness, and became
      “characterized by their role as settlers, as pioneers,
      rather than as Jews. Mining camps attracted Jews
      who set aside religious concerns, at least temporarily,
      to make a living. Only after the business was well
      established did pioneer Jews undertake to erect
      synagogues and send for Rabbis.
       The apparent ease with which Jews assimilated
      in Montana might be explained in several ways.
      Perhaps Montana people were unusually open to
      diversity. With over forty nationalities counted in
      an early census, the majority were outsiders and
      newcomers. With so many strangers in a strange
      land, a group was less likely to be singled out for
      reasons other than obvious racial characteristics.
      One man said, “now, where (are there) such good and
      accommodating people as in the state of Montana.”
      Perhaps tolerance was necessary for survival in a new     ^ƚĂŝŶĞĚ ŐůĂƐƐ ǁŝŶĚŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ dĞŵƉůĞ  ŵĂŶƵͲ ů͘  ŽƵƌƚĞƐLJ ŽĨ ,ĞůĞŶĂ
      town where everyone was a relatrive newcomer. A            Ɛ  ^ŚĞ  tĂƐ͕  ǁǁ͘ŚĞůĞŶĂŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ŽƌŐͬdĞŵƉůĞͲ ŵĂŶƵͲ ů͘Śƚŵ͕  ĂŶĚ
      man or woman may have been judged more for their           ůůĞŶ  ĂƵŵůĞƌ͕ DŽŶƚĂŶĂ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJ͘
      –ƒŽ‡–•ǡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–‹‡•ǡ ƒ† ™‘”–Š –‘ –Š‡ …‘—‹–›ǤdzΒǤ
                                                                Solomon Star. “Sol” Star was born into a Jewish family
       “The Jews who settled in Helena during the early        ‹  ƒ˜ƒ”‹ƒǡ  ‡”ƒ›ǡ ‘  ‡…‡„‡” ͚͘ǡ ͙͘͜͠Ǥ  Š‡ ˆƒ‹Ž›
      years of the gold rush were important participants       immigrated to the United States around 1850 and took
      in the day-to-day life of the community. Most were       up residence in Ohio. Sol Star arrived in Montana in 1865.
      merchants and, as such, boosters for the community       He became a Master Mason on November 4, 1865. Star
      who worked to solve civic problems and to promote        had been actively involved in the Masonic movement in
      cultural activities. Jews joined with other businessmen   ‘–Š‡” ‰‘Ž† …ƒ’• ƒ† ‹  ‹”‰‹‹ƒ  ‹–›Ǥ  ‡ ƒƥŽ‹ƒ–‡† ™‹–Š
      ‹ –Š‡ †‹”‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ž‘…ƒŽ ƒơƒ‹”• ƒ† ’Žƒ…‡† –Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•    ‹”‰‹‹ƒ  ‹–›  ‘†‰‡  ‘Ǥ ͛͜ ȋ™Š‹…Š „‡…ƒ‡  ‹”‰‹‹ƒ  ‹–›
      in the forefront of movements that promised to            ‘†‰‡  ‘Ǥ ͙Ȍ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡  ”ƒ†  ‘†‰‡
      „‡‡Ƥ–   ‡Ž‡ƒ  ƒ†   ‘–ƒƒǤ   Š‡›  •—’’‘”–‡†  –Š‡      ‘ˆ  ‘–ƒƒǤ  ‡ ™ƒ• –Š‡  —‹‘”  ‡ƒ…‘ ƒ– –Š‡  ‹”‰‹‹ƒ
      establishment of local government, organized              ‹–›  ‘†‰‡Ǥ ͙Ǥ  Š‡ –Š‡  ”ƒ†  ‘†‰‡ ‘ˆ  ‘–ƒƒ ™ƒ•
      ˜‘Ž—–‡‡” Ƥ”‡ †‡’ƒ”–‡–•ǡ Œ‘‹‡† ˆ”ƒ–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† •‘…‹ƒŽ   organized in 1866. He was one of the Master Masons who
      …Ž—„•ǡ ƒ† Š‡Ž† ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‘ƥ…‡•Ǥ  Š‡•‡ ‡–‡”’”‹•‹‰      attended the organizational session and was appointed
      Jewish people had their own futures in view when         –Š‡  ”ƒ†  ™‘”†  ‡ƒ”‡”Ǥ  –ƒ” ‘˜‡† –‘  ‡Ž‡ƒ ‹ ͙͟͠͞Ǥ
      they thought of Helena, but they nevertheless played      ˆ–‡”  ‘˜‹‰  –‘   ‡Ž‡ƒǡ  Š‡  ™ƒ•  ‡Ž‡…–‡†  ƒ•  –Š‡  Ƥ”•–
      ƒ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ”‘Ž‡ ‹ –Š‡ ‰”‘™–Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘—‹–› ƒ†      ‘”•Š‹’ˆ—Ž   ƒ•–‡”  ‘ˆ   ‹‰   ‘Ž‘‘ǯ•   ‘†‰‡   ‘Ǥ  ͡ǡ
      in the stabilization of the territory.                   •‡”˜‹‰ ‹ –Šƒ– ‘ƥ…‡ ˆ”‘ ͙͟͠͞ –‘ ͙͟͠͡ ƒ† ƒ‰ƒ‹ ‹ ͙͛͟͠
        ‘– ƒŽŽ ‘ˆ  ‡Ž‡ǯ•  ‡™‹•Š  ƒ•‘• ™‡”‡ ‘ƥ…‡”•            ƒ† ͙͟͜͠Ǥ  ‡ •‡”˜‡† ƒ• –Š‡ •‡…‘†  ”ƒ†  ”‡ƒ•—”‡”ǡ ƒ†
      ‘ˆ –Š‡  ”ƒ†  ‘†‰‡ ‘ˆ  ‘–ƒƒǡ „—– ƒ› ™‡”‡             ‹ ͙͠͞͠Ǥ   ͙͟͠͞ǡ Š‡ •‡”˜‡† ƒ•  ”ƒ†  –ƒ†ƒ”†  ‡ƒ”‡”Ǣ –Š‡
      active members of their own local lodges. Helena         ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ›‡ƒ”ǡ Š‡ „‡…ƒ‡ –Š‡ •‡…‘†  ”ƒ†  ‡…”‡–ƒ”›
       ‘†‰‡  ‘Ǥ ͛ ƒ†  ‘”‹‰  –ƒ”  ‘†‰‡  ‘Ǥ ͝ „‘–Š Šƒ†        ‘ˆ –Š‡  ”ƒ†  ‘†‰‡ ‘ˆ  ‘–ƒƒǡ •‡”˜‹‰ ƒ‰ƒ‹ ‹ ͙͠͞͡Ǥ
       ‡™‹•Š ‡„‡”•ǡ „—–  ‹‰  ‘Ž‘‘ǯ•  ‘†‰‡  ‘Ǥ  ͡            ͙͙͟͠ Š‡ ™ƒ• ‡Ž‡…–‡† ƒ•  ‡’—–›  ”ƒ†  ƒ•–‡”Ǥ   ͙͛͟͠
      ™ƒ•  –Š‡   ƒ•‘‹…   ‘†‰‡  ‘•–  ™‹†‡Ž›  ƒ––‡†‡†  „›     Š‡ ™ƒ• ‡Ž‡…–‡† ƒ• –Š‡ •‡˜‡–Š  ”ƒ†  ƒ•–‡” ‘ˆ  ƒ•‘•
      Helena’s Jewish pioneers. During its early years, the    in Montana. He was also a member of the Scottish
      lodge had numerous Jewish members, and most of           Rite and was a past Potentate of Algeria Shrine. Other
      its Worshipful Masters were Jews. The combined           organizations included: the Order of Eastern Star, Order

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