Page 20 - Montana Freemason Feb 13
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Montana Freemason  February 2013                           Volume 86 Number 1

         Guisseppe Garibaldi - Patriot - Mason

                                   Everett L. Lynn (3,51)

 True idealist and indomitable individualist;                A general in the shortlived Roman Republic of 1849,
        internationalist and most successful guerilla      he led the valiant defence against the French attack
general of all time; professional rebel and national       at Janiculum Hill and the Neopolitians at Velletri.
hero of Italy; Guisseppe Garibaldi first saw the light     Further resistance became futile when Pious IX was
of day in Nice, France on July 4, 1807.                    returned to power. Garibaldi with his insurgents were
  As both son and grandson of ship’s captains he           pushed over the mountains to neutral San Marino.
followed the call of great oceans and foreign lands        His courage and determination not to surrender in
when he went to sea at the age 15. By 1832 he had          his epic retreat acclaimed him as “the Hero of Two
acquired a masters certificate as a merchant captain.      Worlds”.
  While a member of Mazzini’s “Young Italy”
movement, a secret revolutionary society, he                 After a second exile in Tangiers, Staten Island, New
participated in an unsuccessful insurrection of            York and Peru, he was allowed to return to Italy in 1854
the Piedmont-Sardinia navy at Genoa in 1834.               by Compte di Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont,
Condemned to death in absentia, he escaped to South        trying to lure him from the influence of the republican
America where in 1835 he offered his sword to Brasil’s      Mazzini. A major general in the Piedmontese army
rebellious province Rio Grande Do Sul and fought           he led in April 1859 his Cacciatory Delle Alpi
on their behalf until 1840 which marked a series of        (alpine huntsmen) in the acquisition of Lombardy
victories by the Brazilians.                               by Piedmont, but was unsupported by Victor
  Following the cause of freedom he became                 Emmanuel II in his desire to invade the papal states.
associated with Uraguay’s quarrel with Argentina. By       Feeling betrayed by Cavour and Victor Emmanuel
1843 he was in command of the Italian Legion, his          when they bargained Nice back to France, Garibaldi
first “Redshirts” at Montevidio. The battle of Sant’       became ungovernable. A popular revolution in Sicily
Antonio in 1846 and the defense of Montevidio by           encouraged him to embark on his greatest venture of
the “Invincibles” in 1847 catapulted him to fame as        his life. On May 11, 1860 he sailed from Genoa with
“the Hero of Montevidio”. His renown as a guerilla         1,000 men to Marsala, Sicily. By successive victories
warfare leader and a romantic adventurer was further       at Calatafimi, Palermo, and the battle of Milazzo,
romanticised in Europe by Alexander Dumas, Pere,           Sicily was secured giving convincing proof that he
and was considered an important factor in gaining          could defeat the regular soldiers of Naple’s army. His
Uraguay’s independence.                                    success was augmented by an irresistable personal
  The year 1848 found Europe aflame with revolution.       charm which convinced many peasants that a god
Garibaldi returned then with 60 of his redshirts to fight  had come to deliver them from slavery and feudalism.
for the resorgimento or resurrection of Italy against
Austria. Refused by Pope Pius IX and Charles Albert,         Crossing in the strait of Messina on August 19, the
King of Piedmont, he led his volunteers to Milan with      immortal Redshirts moved in a lightening campaign
Mazzini and continued the war after Charles Albert’s       through Calabria and on September 7, 1860 entered
defeat at Custoza, engaging the Austrians victoriously     Naples where he proclaimed himself “Dictator of the
at Luino and Morazzone. Eventually outnumbered he          Two Sicilies”. Such a victory was considered the most
retreated to Switzerland.                                  unexpected and decisive success of the risorgimento.
                                                           The Neopolitian army was further engaged north of
                                                           Naples at the Volturno river north of Naples where
                                                           Garibaldi’s largest command of 30,000 troops was
                                                           held in check.

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